I. Introductory Information


1. Course Title                               2023 SP - BIBL 594 - Special Topics: Luke & Acts

2. Professor                                             Dr. Bob Welch

3. Credit hours                               5 ECTS

4. Time                                               17th April – 21 April 2022



II. Course Description

Luke-Acts is a pastoral narrative documenting the origin and advancement of the early church. As a story of the emerging people of God, Luke charts the triumphs and tragedies of the first Christians and thereby provides a historical context for our NT. This study will examine the fate of the gospel message from its Jewish origins to Rome. Attention will be given to Lukan theology, his literary artistry, the role of Acts as part of the canon, and its significance for contemporary Christians. Students will be encouraged to utilize these conventions for personal and vocational application. In recent years, exciting developments concerning Luke as a historian and theologian have produced startling opportunities for fresh scholarship, particularly among Pentecostals.

III. Course Objectives

At the end of the course students will:

1. Assess the various purposes proposed for the penning of Luke-Acts.

2. Articulate and evaluate the various structural and literary proposals of the Lukan story.

3. Evaluate the history of interpretation and current trends of Lukan scholarship.

4. Identify and analyze various themes/motifs of Luke-Acts.

5. Evaluate the specific contributions of Pentecostal scholars concerning hermeneutics, select passages, and theologies of Luke-Acts.

6. Demonstrate confidence and precision for teaching and preaching Luke-Acts based upon newly developed and sharpened analytical skills.

IV. Course Outline

Monday      Introduction to hermeneutical issues, and to Luke’s doctrine of the

Holy Spirit. Exposition of Luke’s infancy and inauguration narratives (Luke 1-4).


Tuesday Exposition of Jesus’ Spirit-anointed prophetic and theological ministry with exposition of textual readings of manuscripts, e.g. Codex Bezae, within Luke.


Wednesday Exposition of the origin and Acts of the Post-Easter Spirit-baptized

prophetic community (Acts 1.1-6.7).


Thursday Exposition of the Acts of the charismatic prophets (Stephen, Philip,

Barnabas, Agabus, Peter and Paul) and textual readings (Codex Bezae).


Friday Theological synthesis of Luke’s charismatic theology.




A. Required Texts


1.      Menzies, William W. and Robert P. Spirit and Power: Foundations of Pentecostal Experience. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Pub. House, 2000.

2.      Stronstad, Roger. The Charismatic Theology of St. Luke. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1984.


B. Recommended Reading


3.      Mittelstadt, Martin, Reading Luke-Acts in the Pentecostal Tradition. Cleveland, TN.: CPT Press, 2010.


C. Course Assessments


1.    Pre-course required readings + Journal  20%

2.    Class attendance and active participation in class discussions  20%

3.    Class presentation    20%

4.    Research Paper 4-5000 words         40%


The Course requires ___ Hours of actual time :-

1.    Pre-Course Required Reading + Journal see below         40 Hours

2.    Seminar                                                                             25 Hours

3.    Preparation of Presentation and Handout                         20 Hours                                    

4.    Research paper                                                                 50 Hours



VI. Reading


1.     Reading and Analysis + Journal Article (3-5 page report): Due – Beginning of Class.


It is imperative that you gain a grasp of Luke-Acts as a two volume work. Imagine for a moment that Acts is the sequel or the Third Gospel is the prequel!

• Read Luke-Acts. This should be done in one sitting before any other secondary readings. After the first reading of Luke-Acts reflect upon its purpose(s) and theme(s). How do the two volumes function as a whole? Write down any other observations/insights that come from this reading.

• Read Acts (for the second time) and take note of plot development, characterization of major and minor figures, and flow of the narrative. Where is the narrative going? Begin to consider preliminary didactic purpose(s) that might be gleaned from the Lukan story?


Journal Article:  Examples are in Bibliography, or from ETS library.  [One example: Menzies, Robert. "The Distinctive Character of Luke's Pneumatology" Paraclete 1991, 17-30.]



  VII. In-class Presentation

Students choose from the following list of topics and present in class (about 45-60 minutes)

o   Give a thumbnail sketch of the major issues to guide and inform Pentecostal reading of Luke-Acts

o   Which single issue strikes you as most significant in your reading and experience of Luke-Acts? You may think in terms of what angle has been most emphasized in your church(es)? If you are not in a Pentecostal environment, what category do you believe your tradition most emphasizes?

o   Whether you are Pentecostal or otherwise, discuss the single issue you think carries the most weight in your personal life? And what issue requires the most attention in the church at large? Why and Why?

Students are allowed to focus on specific issues in their topics. They should provide a one/two-page summary of the presentation (Handout) and hand it to the professor  before the course starts) 



VIII.  FINAL PAPER. The student will write a major paper on one of the following options:


 a) Discuss the debate about the hermeneutics of historical and textual narrative in contemporary biblical scholarship. Briefly summarize and contrast two main positions in this debate and come to a conclusion about which position leads to the better interpretation of Luke-Acts.

b) Discuss Luke’s inauguration narrative (Lk. 3,4). This is programmatic and shows that Jesus’ entire ministry, and not just its inauguration, is Spirit-anointed, Spirit-filled, Spirit-led, and Spirit-empowered. Notice how Luke reinforces the programmatic function of the inauguration narrative by reporting about the Holy Spirit in Jesus’ life on the principle of inclusion (n.b. Lk. 3-4; Lk 24/Acts 2,3).

c) Write a critical evaluation of a commentary on Acts 2:1-21, which is written by a non-Pentecostal. Analyze not only what is written about the pouring forth of the Spirit on the day of Pentecost, but also what has been ignored by the commentator, which is often just as important to observe.

d) Compare and contrast the charismatic (i.e., Spirit-filled, Spirit empowered and Spirit-led) ministries of both Peter and Paul. Note that this is to be a study of Luke’s data and is not a study of the data in the Pauline and Petrine epistles.


This major paper will be 4-5000 words (approx.. 12-15 pages) in length. It will follow the style guidelines of ETS. This paper is due ___TBA__________. This assignment is worth 40% of the final grade.






Grading Scale

 94-100 %   =  A

 90-93 %     =  A-

 88-89 %     =  B+

 83-86 %     =  B

 80-82 %     =  B –

 70-79 %     =  C

 Below 80 % = F



IX. Bibliography


Green, Joel B. The Gospel of Luke. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1997.


Marshall, I. Howard. The Gospel of Luke. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1978.


Read-Heimerdinger, Jenny. Luke in His Own Words: A Study of the Language of Luke–Acts in Greek. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2022.


Read-Heimerdinger, Jenny, and Josep Rius-Camps. Luke’s Demonstration to Theophilus: The Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles According to Codex Bezae. Bloomsbury Publishing, 2013.


Rius-Camps, Josep, and Jenny Read-Heimerdinger. The Message of Acts in Codex Bezae: A Comparison with the Alexandrian Tradition. A&C Black, 2004.

———. The Message of Acts in Codex Bezae (Vol 2): A Comparison with the Alexandrian Tradition, Volume 2. A&C Black, 2006.


_____. The Message of Acts in Codex Bezae (Vol 3).: A Comparison with the Alexandrian Tradition: Acts 13.1-18.23. T&T Clark, 2007.

_____. The Message of Acts in Codex Bezae (Vol 4): A Comparison with the Alexandrian Tradition, Volume 4 Acts 18.24-28.31: Rome. A&C Black, 2009.

Welch, Bob. The Acts of the Holy Spirit in Codex Bezae. Halle, Belgium: PeaceLiterature, 2022.

_________.“Paul’s Struggle with the Spirit” in The Pentescope December 2021. Sint-Pieters-Leeuw, Belgium: Dimitrov Research Center at Continental Theological Seminary, 2021.

__________.“Tracing St. Luke’s Pneumatology through Bezae.” Pages 135-146 in Reading St. Luke’s Text and Theology: A Pentecostal Voice – “Essays in Honour of Roger Stronstad on his 75th Birthday”. Edited by Riku P. Tuppurainen. Abbotsford, BC, Canada. (October 16 2019).

__________.“Pneumatological Emphases of Codex Bezae's Luke-Acts: An Examination of Readings from a late 4th Century Greek-Latin Bilingual Manuscript” in Society of Pentecostal Studies, 46th Annual Meeting 2017. St Louis, MO: SPS, 2017.

__________.“Repetitive Prophetical and Interpretative Formulations in Luke’s Gospel of Codex Bezae: An Analysis of Readings in D.”  Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Wales, Bangor. Bangor: UWB, 2015.





Alexander, Loveday. "Luke's Preface in the Context of Greek Preface-Writing" NovT 28 (1986) 48-74.

Arlandson, James. Women, Class and Society in Early Christianity: Models from Luke-Acts. Hendrickson, 1997.

Arrington, French L. The Acts of the Apostles: An Introduction and Commentary. Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson, 1988.

Aune, David. The New Testament in its Literary Environment. Library of Early Christianity. ed. Wayne A. Meeks. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1987.

Bauckham, Richard. The Book of Acts in its First Century Setting. Vol. 4: Palestinian Setting. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1979-1988.

Bock, D.L. Proclamation from Prophecy and Pattern: Lucan Old Testament Christology. JSNTSup, 12. Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1987.

Bovon, Francois. Luke the Theologian: Thirty-three Years of Research (1950-1983). Tranlsated and Updated by Ken McKinney. Princeton Theological Monograph Series 12. Allison Park, PA.: Pickwick Publications, 1987.

Bradley, James. "Miracle and Martyrdom in the Early Church: Some Theological and Ethical Implications." Pneuma 13 (1991): 65-81.

Brawley, Robert L. Centering on God. Method and Message in Luke-Acts. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1990.

_____. Luke-Acts and the Jews: Conflict, Apology and Conciliation. SBLMS 33. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987.

Brehm, H.A. "The Significance of the Summaries for Interpreting Acts" SWJT 33 (1990) 29-40.

Bruce, F.F. "The Holy Spirit in the Acts of the Apostles" Int 27 (1973) 166-183.

_____. "The Significance of the Speeches for Interpreting Acts" SWJT 33 (1990) 20-28.

Cadbury, H.J. The Making of Luke-Acts. New York: MacMillan, 1927.

Cassidy, Richard J. Jesus. Society and Politics in the Acts of the Apostles. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1987.

Conzelmann., Hans. The Theology of St. Luke. Trans. G. Buswell. Harper and Row: NY, 1960.

_____. Die Apostlegeschichte. HNT. Tubingen: J.C.B. Mohr, 1963. English Translation, Acts of the Apostles. Hermeneia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.

Cosgrove, Charles H. "The Divine DEI in Luke-Acts" NovT 26 (1984) 168-190. 5

Cullen, Peter J. "Euphoria, Praise and Thanksgiving: Rejoicing in the Spirit in Luke Acts" JPT 6 (1995) 13-24.

de Ste Croix, G.E.M. "Why were the Early Christians Persecuted?" Studies in Ancient Society. ed. M.I. Finley. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1974. 210-249.

Dehandschutter, B. "La persecution des chretiens dans les Actes des Apotres" Les Actes des Apotres: Traditions, redaction, theologie. ed. J. Kremer. Paris: Leuven University Press, 1978. page.

Dibelius, Martin, "Die Reden der Apostelgeschichte und die antike Geschichtschreibung" Aufsatze zur Apostelgeschichte. FRLANT 60. ed. H. Greeven. Gottingen, 1951. 120-162.

_____. Studies in the Acts of the Apostles. Trans. M. Ling. London,: SCM Press, 1956.

Dillon, R.J. "Previewing Luke's Project from the Prologue" CBQ 43 (1981) 205-227.

_____ . "The Prophecy of Christ and His Witnesses According to the Discourses of Acts" NTS 32 (1986) 544-556.

Dragas, George. "Martyrdom and Orthodoxy in the NT Era: The theme of martyris as witness to the truth" The Greek Orthodox Theological Review 30 (1985) 287-296.

Dupont, J. Le discours de Milet. Testament pastoral de saint Paul (Acts 20:18-36). Lectio divina 32. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1962.

_____. The Salvation of the Gentiles: Studies in the Acts of the Apostles. Trans. John Keating, S.J. New York: Paulist Press, 1967.

Filson, Floyd. "Journey Motif in Luke-Acts" Apostolic History and the Gospel. Ed. W.Gasque and R. Martin. Exeter: Paternoster Press, 1970. 68-77.

Foakes-Jackson, F.J. and K. Lake. eds. The Beginnings of Christianity. 5 Vols. London: Macmillan, 1920-1933.

Garrett, Susan. The Demise of the Devil. Augsburg, 1989.

Gasque, W. Ward. A History of the Interpretation of the Acts of the Apostles. Peabody: MA.: Hendrickson, 1989.

Gaventa, Beverly Roberts. "To Speak Thy Word with all boldness" Faith and Mission 3 (1986) 76-82.

_____. "Toward a Theology of Acts - Reading and Rereading" Int 42 (1988) 146-157.

_____. "`You Will Be My Witnesses': Aspects of Mission in the Acts of the Apostles" Missiology 10 (1982) 413-425.

Gen, Raymond M. "The Phenomena of Miracles and Divine Infliction in Luke-Acts: Their Theological Significance." Pneuma 11(1989) 3-19.

Haenchen, Ernest. The Acts of the Apostles. Trans. B. Noble and G. Shinn. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1971.

House, Paul. R. "Suffering and the Purpose of Acts" JETS 33 (1990) 317-330.

Johnson Luke. "Luke-Acts, Book of" ABD. Vol. 4. Editor: David Noel Freeman. Doubleday, N.Y., 1992.

_____. The Literary Function of Possessions in Luke-Acts. SBLDS 39. Scholars Press, Misssoula, 1977.

_____. The Writings of the NT. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1986.

Karris, Robert J. Luke: Artist and Theologian. Luke's Passion Account as Literature. Theological Inquiries. New York: Paulist Press, 1985.

_____. "Missionary Communities: A New Paradigm for the Study of Luke-Acts." CBQ 41 (1979) 80-97.

_____. What are They Saying About Luke and Acts? A Theology of the Faithful God. New York: Paulist Press, 1979

Keck, L.E. and Martyn, J.L. eds. Studies in Luke-Acts. New York: Abingdon Press, 1966.

Kilgallen, John, S.J. "Acts: Literary and Theological Turning Points" BTB 7 (1977) 177-180.

_____. "Paul's Speech to the Ephesian Elders: Its Structure" Ephemerides Theologicae Lovanienses 70 (1994) 112-121.

_____. "Persecution in the Acts of the Apostles" Luke and Acts. Eds. Gerald O'Collins and Gilberto Marconi. Translated by Matthew J. O'Connell. Paulist Press, NY, 1993, 143-160.

_____. "The Function of Stephen's Speech (Acts 7, 2-35) Biblica 70 (1989) 173-193.

_____. The Stephen Speech. A Literary and Redactional Study of Acts 7,2-53. Biblical Institute: Rome, 1976.

Kurz, William, S.J. Farewell Addresses in the New Testament. Zacchaeus Studies. Collegeville: Minnesota: Liturgical Press, 1990.

_____. "Narrative Models for Imitation in Luke-Acts” Greeks, Romans and Christians. ed. David L. Balch, Everett Ferguson, Wayne A. Meeks. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990. 171-189.

_____. "Narrative Approaches to Luke-Acts" Biblica 68 (1987) 195-222.

_____. Reading Luke-Acts: Dynamics of Biblical Narrative. Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1993.

Kydd, Ronald A. N. Charismatic Gifts in the Early Church. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1984.

Longenecker, Richard N. The Acts of the Apostles. The Expositor's Bible Commentary,Vol. 9. Frank E Gaebelein, General Editor. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1981.

Maddox, Robert. The Purpose of Luke-Acts. FRLANT, 126. Gottingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1982.

_____. The Gospel of Luke: A Commentary on the Greek Text. Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, 1978.

Marshall, Paul. Their Blood Cries Out: The Untold Story of Persecution Against Christians in the Modern World. Dallas: Word Publishing, 1997.

Mattill, A.J. "The Jesus-Paul Parallels and the Purpose of Luke-Acts:H.H.Evans Reconsidered" NovT 17 (1975) 15-46.

_______. "The Purpose of Acts: Schneckenburger Reconsidered." Apostolic History and the Gospel. eds. W.Ward Gasque and Ralph P. Martin. Grand Rapids, Eerdmans,1970. 108-122.

Menzies, Robert. "The Distinctive Character of Luke's Pneumatology" Paraclete 1991, 17-30.

_______. Empowered for Witness: The Spirit in Luke-Acts. JPTSS 6. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1995.

Miesner, Donald R. "The Missionary Journeys Narrative: Patterns and Implications" Perspectives in Luke-Acts. ed. Charles Talbert. Perspectives in Religious Studies Special Studies Series 5. Danville, Va.: Association of Baptist Professors of Religion, 1978. 199-214.

_____. "The Circumferential Speeches of Luke-Acts: Patterns and Purpose" Society of Biblical Literature 1978 Seminar Papers. ed. Paul Achtemeier, vol. 2. Missoula: Scholars Press, 1978. 223-237.

Miles, G.B. & Trompf, G.W. "Luke and Antiphon, The Theology of Acts 27-28" HTR 69 (1976) 259-267.

Mills, Watson E. A Bibliography of the Periodical Literature on the Acts of the Apostles 1962-1984. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1986.

Minear, Paul S. "Dear Theo: The Kerygmatic Intention and Claim of Luke-Acts" Int 27 (1973) 131-150.

Moessner, David P. "`The Christ Must Suffer': New Light on the Jesus-Peter, Stephen, Paul Parallels in Luke-Acts" NovT 28 (1986) 220-256.

_____. "The Christ Must Suffer," The Church Must Suffer: Rethinking the Theology of the Cross in Luke-Acts" Society of Biblical Literature 1990 Seminar Papers. ed. David J. Lull. Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990. 165-195.

Munck, Johannes. The Acts of the Apostles. AB 31. Revised by William F. Albright and C.S. Mann. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday & Company, 1967.

Neyrey, Jerome H. ed. The Social World of Luke-Acts: Models for Interpretation. Peabody: Hendrickson, 1991.

O'Neill, J.C. The Theology of Acts in Its Historical Setting. London: S.P.C.K., 1970.

O'Reilly, Leo. Word and Sign in the Acts of the Apostles. A Study in Lucan Theology. AnGreg, 243. 8 Rome: Editrice Pontificia Universita Gregoraina, 1987.

O'Toole, Robert. "Activity of the Risen Jesus in Luke-Acts" Biblica 62 (1981) 471-498.

_____. "Luke's Notion of `Be Imitators of Me as I am of Christ" in Acts 25:26" BTB (1978) 155-161.

_____. "Parallels between Jesus and the Disciples in Luke-Acts. A Further Study" BibZeit 27 (1983) 195-212.

_____. "Parallels between Jesus and Moses" BTB 20(1990) 22-29.

_____. The Unity of Luke's Theology: An Analysis of Luke-Acts. Good News Studies 9. Wilmington, DE: Michael Glazier, 1984.

_____. "Why Did Luke Write Acts (Lk-Acts)?" BTB 7 (1977) 66-76.

Parsons, Mikeal C. and Pervo, Richard I. Rethinking the Unity of Luke and Acts. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.

Penney, John Michael. The Missionary Emphasis of Lukan Pneumatology. JPTSS 12. Sheffield: Sheffield University Press, 1997.

Pervo, Richard I. Profit With Delight: The Literary Genre of the Acts of the Apostles. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.

Peterson, David. "The Motif of Fulfilment and the Purpose of Luke-Acts" The Book of Acts in Its First Century Setting.. Vol. 1. eds. Bruce Winter and Adam Clarke. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993. 84-104.

Powell, Mark Allan. What Are They Saying About Acts? New York: Paulist Press, 1991.

Praeder, Susan. "Jesus-Paul, Peter-Paul and Jesus-Peter Parallelisms in Luke-Acts: A History of Reader Response" Society of Biblical Literature 1984 Seminar Papers. ed. Kent Harold Richards. Chico, Calif: Scholars Press, 1984. 23-39.

_______. "Miracle Worker and Missionary; Paul in the Acts of the Apostles" Society of Biblical Literature 1983 Seminar Papers. ed. Kent Harold Richards. Chico, Calif: Scholars Press, 1983. 107-129.

Rapske, Brian. The Book of Acts in Its First Century Setting: Paul in Roman Custody. Vol. 3. eds. Bruce Winter and Adam Clarke. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.

Smalley, Stephen S. "Spirit, Kingdom and Prayer in Luke-Acts" NovT 15 (1973) 59-71.

Smail, Thomas. "The Cross and the Spirit: Toward a Theology of Renewal" The Love of Power and the Power of Love. eds. Smail, Thomas, Walker, Andrew and Wright, Nigel. London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1993. 13-37.

Soards, Marion L. The Speeches in Acts: Their Content, Context, and Concerns. Louisville: John Knox., 1994.

Stock, A. "A Realistic Spirituality: Pathos in Luke-Acts" Journal of Spiritual Formation (Pitt, PA) 15 (1994) 321-332.

Stronstad, Roger. The Charismatic Theology of St. Luke. Peabody, MA.: Hendrickson, 1984.

_____. "The Hermeneutics of Lucan Historiography" Paraclete 1988: 5-17.

_____. "Trends in Pentecostal Hermeneutics" Paraclete 22 (1988) 1-12.

Stuehrenberg, Paul F. "The Study of Acts Before the Reformation: A Bibliographic Introduction." NovT 29 (1987): 100-136.

Talbert, C. H. "Discipleship in Luke-Acts" Discipleship in the New Testament. ed. Fenando F. Segovia. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1985. 62-75.

_____. Learning Through Suffering: The Educational Value of Suffering in the New Testament and in its Milieu.

_____. Literary Patterns, Theological Themes and the Genre of Luke-Acts. SBLMS, 20.Missoula, MT.: SBL and Scholars Press, 1974.

_____. "Martyrdom in Luke-Acts and the Lukan Social Ethic" Political Issues in Luke-Acts. eds. R. Cassidy and P.Scharper, 1983: 99-110.

_____. "Once Again: Gospel Genre" Semeia 43 (1988) 53-73.

_____. "Promise and Fulfillment in Luke-Acts" Luke-Acts: New Perspectives from the Society of Biblical Literature. New York: Crossroad, 1984. 91-103.

Tannehill, R.C. The Narrative Unity of Luke-Acts: A Literary Interpretation. I. The Gospel according to Luke. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1986.

_____. The Narrative Unity of Luke-Acts: A Literary Interpretation II. The Acts of the Apostles. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

Trompf, G.W. The Idea of Historical Recurrence in Western Thought: From Antiquity to Reformation. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1979.

Turner, M.M.B. "Power From on High”: The Spirit in Israel's Restoration and Witness in Luke-Acts. JPTSS 9. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1996.

_____. "The Significance of Receiving the Spirit in Luke-Acts: A Survey of Modern Scholarship" TJ (1981) 131-158.

Tyson, Joseph B. "Conflict as a Literary Theme in the Gospel of Luke" New Synoptic Studies: The Cambridge Gospel Conference and Beyond. ed. William R. Farmer. Macon, GA: Mercer University Press, 1983. 303-327.

_____. ed. Luke-Acts and the Jewish People: Eight Critical Perspectives. Minneapolis: Augsburg Publishing House, 1988.

_____. Images of Judaism in Luke-Acts. Columbia, S.C.: South Carolina Press, 1992.

_____. The Jewish Public in Luke-Acts" NTS 30 (1984) 574-583.

Weinrich, William C. Spirit and Martyrdom: A Study of the Work of the Holy Spirit in Contexts of Persecution and Martyrdom in the NT and Early Christian Literature. Washington D.C.: University Press of America, , 1981.

Wenk, Matthias. Community-Forming Power: The Socio-Ethical Role of the Spirit in Luke-Acts. Sheffield, 2000.

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Witherington, Ben. The Acts of the Apostles: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1998.